TPACK Model Description from the project

Resources and references provided by the teaching Teachers to the Future (TTF) project.

The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) conceptual framework espoused by Mishra and Koehler (2006), underpins much of the national directions for describing use of ICT in learning and for profesisonal work. The TPACK framework “attempts to capture some of the essential qualities of teacher knowledge required for technology integration in teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted, and situated nature of this knowledge” (p.1). Specifically it: highlights the nuanced and complex relationships between three forms of knowledge: Pedagogical knowledge (PK), content knowledge (TK); and technological knowledge (TK).

The model in a nutshell

The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) conceptual framework was described originally by Mishra and Koehler (2006).  The TPACK framework highlights the complex relationships between three forms of knowledge: pedagogical (PK), content (CK), and technological (TK).

This framework is represented in the diagram. The TPACK model highlights that an idea for using ICT in classrooms must have a sound curriculum fit and meet the pedagogical needs for implementing the idea. The intersections of the circles are important in the model and suggest preservice teachers need to describe what part of the model, any idea for using ICT in curriculum is addressing. Not all ideas may be in the middle of the diagram.

Content Knowledge (CK) is about the subject matter from curriculum documents and the deep learning of concepts, as well as the higher order thinking and high level communication and other processes in the curriculum.

Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is about the strategies, and techniques used in classrooms and other earning situations and environments) to ensure curriculum goals are met.

Technology knowledge (TK) is about the digital and non-digital technologies and tools we use in classrooms.

Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is about knowing what teaching approaches fit the content and expectations of the subjects.

In the TPACK framework, Technology Knowledge (TK), can combine with:

Content Knowledge (CK) to form Technological Content Knowledge (TCK);

Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) to form Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK); and

Content Knowledge (CK) and Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) to form Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK).

Technological Content Knowledge (TCK)
is about interpreting your curriculum through a technology lens and to consider the impact of technology on what is changing in your curriculum area.

Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) is about the special pedagogical considerations for using technology within your teaching strategies or perhaps for considering new pedagogical approaches afforded by the qualities of the software – what new things can you do, pedagogically?

TPACK is a way of describing how technology pedagogy and content fit together to enable powerful learning.


Background information for deeper understanding

The original web sites about the TPACK model provide great background.

Wikipedia provides a good summary

Using the model to describe your use of ICT in learning episodes

It will be useful to develop any units of work you make for assessment or for use in prac and internships, by using the TPACK model to describe your idea.

What is the curriculum purpose and is your idea for a lesson worthwhile? (CK)

What is the pedagogy that is embedded in the curriculum idea ( PCK)?

What specific strategies might you use (PK)?

How does the technology lens you use to unpack the curriculum goals change how you select activities that are authentic and meet future needs of technology literate students? (TCK)

How does using technology impact on your pedagogical decisions and how will you mange the use of technology by the students so they achieve the goals of the lesson (TPK)

What technical knowledge do you need to use the technology to meet the curriculum goals and pedagogical approach? (TK)

How does it all come together to meet learning goals successfully? (TPACK)

Some uses of technology in schools you will see are trivial; or using technology for the sake of it. Your uses of technology need to not only meet curriculum goals, but also contribute to the digital literacy of your students in ways that will serve them in the future. This view of digital literacy will also drive how you interpret the curriculum and the priorities you set in selecting what to achieve in your classroom. This list of qualities of a contemporary digitally literate students will shape your powerful use of ICT in classrooms. This list was sourced from the support materials of the exemplar packages in the TTF project.

The digitally literate learner:

  • wants to be connected
  • wants to drive the agenda
  • is an information seeker and navigator
  • is empowered
  • understands they are part of a global community
  • is not restricted by classroom walls
  • demands content, teaching quality and resources that meet their own learning preferences
  • is a hyper-critical user
  • works at twitch speed
  • takes risks
  • thinks and analyses
  • constructs knowledge and is the chief architect of their own knowledge building
  • creates, modifies, edits
  • is a constant, connected communicator
  • is a technologist, comfortable in an information age
  • has an agile, analytical mind
  • enjoys socio-experiential learning
  • actively produces knowledge
  • engages in social networks
  • creates, authors, publishes and distributes
  • is communal
  • expresses themselves through different modalities
  • seeks more autonomy. (Deighton, dk2, 2009)

It is important that your students are encouraged to develop the skills necessary for digital literacy. This will help them to be empowered, discerning and discriminating users, authors and producers of digital technologies.

Thus it is crucial that the pedagogy informing your classroom teaching takes this into account.

Check out the examples we offer here to both see examples of reasonable uses of ICT Pedagogy and also to further develop your understanding of the TPACK model. The accompanying materials designed specifically for preservice teachers is excellent.

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Mishra, P. & Koehler, M.J., (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers college Record 108, 6, pp 1017-1054

Online information TPACK site by authors.